Stephen Hawking, one of the groundbreaking physicists and most intelligent minds left us with his last shimmering paper. The detail of his last theory on the origin of the Universe, co-authored with Thomas Hertog from KU Leuven.
A great flash and boom, the universe started to inflame after a big burst, then the inflammation started to slow down and the energy started to convert into matter and radiation. And then, particles started to collide and merge with each other creating the whole universe and everything within it.
It is said that during the inflammation, some bubbles of space slowed down the inflammation to complete rest which created a fractal dead-end of static space. Meanwhile, a quantum effect caused eternal inflation in other spaces of bubbles which creates an infinite number of Multiverses.
It was our idea of the big bang and the history of the universe until now, Stephen Hawking’s new theory says that the universe is much far less complex than we can even imagine. Hawking said, “The usual theory of eternal inflation predicts that globally our universe is like an infinite fractal, with a mosaic of different pocket universes, separated by an inflating ocean, – The local laws of physics and chemistry can differ from one pocket universe to another, which together would form a Multiverse. But I have never been a fan of the Multiverse. If the scale of different universes in the Multiverse is large or infinite the theory can’t be tested.”
For making the universe, the theory took the problem it was meant to solve. While according to Hertog and Hawking, the eternal inflation theory is not quite right because Einstein’s theory of general relativity breaks down on quantum scales.
Hertog said, “The problem with the usual account of eternal inflation is that it assumes an existing background universe that evolves according to Einstein’s theory of general relativity and treats the quantum effects as small fluctuations around this, – However, the dynamics of eternal inflation wipes out the separation between classical and quantum physics. As a consequence, Einstein’s theory breaks down in eternal inflation.”
String theory says that you can describe the volume of space in a lower dimensional boundary by mathematically reducing the 3D space to 2D projections on their surfaces, according to Holographic Principal. Their new theory is just on this theory; they created a variation of the holographic principle which can describe the eternal inflation without the help of general relativity. Reducing the eternal inflation to a timeless state, we got the beginning of the universe on a spatial surface.
“When we trace the evolution of our universe backwards in time, at some point we arrive at the threshold of eternal inflation, where our familiar notion of time ceases to have any meaning,” said Hertog.
Hawking said, “We predict that our universe, on the largest scales, is reasonably smooth and globally finite. So it is not a fractal structure,” It doesn’t say that Multiverse isn’t real but describes it to a much smaller range making it much easier to test in the future. Though these waves are quite large to be detected by LIGO future studies and LISA, a space-based future gravitational wave interferometer may reveal them.