BANG… And everything began. Then galaxies started to form, the quasi-stars, stars, supernova, planets, life, humans and everything was created from the one bang.
This was our idea of the big bang for many years. But the new theory is proposed by one of the great minds on earth, Stephen Hawking and a professor of KU Leuven, Thomas Hertog is based on string theory predicting that the universe is finite and much easier than our current ideas.
Current ideas of the big bang say that our local universe started after an inflammation’s big burst. However, it was commonly accepted that there are several regions where it never stops as the inflation starts. Scientists also thought the inflation can go forever with the help of quantum effects in some regions.
But Professor Stephen Hawking and Professor Thomas Hertog proposed that this eternal inflation is completely wrong as a theory of big bang. As Stephen Hawking said in an interview, “The usual theory of eternal inflation predicts that globally our universe is like an infinite fractal, with a mosaic of different pocket universes, separated by an inflating ocean, the local laws of physics and chemistry can differ from one pocket universe to another, which together would form a multiverse.
If the scale of different universes in the multiverse is large or infinite, the theory cannot be tested. We predict that our universe, on the large scales, is reasonably smooth and globally finite. So, it is not fractal structure.”
Hertog has shared his view as well, “The problem with the usual account of eternal inflation is that it assumes an existing background universe that evolves according to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and treats the quantum effects as small fluctuations around this.
However, the dynamics of eternal inflation wipes out the separation between classical and quantum physics. As a consequence, Einstein’s theory breaks down in eternal inflation.”
The eternal inflation’s idea that Hawking and Hertog proposed is based on string theory. Their proposal utilizes the string theory concept of holography postulating that we call the universe. Here physical reality in definite 3D spaces can be reduced t 2D projections mathematically, on a surface.
They developed a variation of this concept projecting out the time dimension; which allowed them to describe eternal inflation without depending on the theory of Albert Einstein. Eternal inflation is reduced to a perpetual state in the new theory defined on a spatial surface at the beginning of time.
As Hertog said, “When we trace the evolution of our universe backward in time, at some point we arrive at the threshold of eternal inflation, where our familiar notion of time ceases to have any meaning.”
The no boundary theory of Stephen Hawking said that if you travel back in time to the beginning of the universe, the universe will close off and shrink in size. But after this new theory arrived, it represented a step away from the past one.
Hawking and Hertog derived many reliable predictions about the global structure of the universe using emerging the new theory. Their prediction is that the universe emerging from eternal inflation on the past boundary is finite and much simple than the infinite fractal structure.
If it is confirmed by further work then their results would have widespread implications for the multiverse diagram. As Stephen Hawking said, “We are not down to a single, unique multiverse. But our findings imply a significant reduction of the multiverse to a much smaller range of possible universes.”