# String Theory: A Complete Explanation

String theory has been the recent interest of scientists as it is the theory that attempts to merge General Theory of Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. In particle physics, string theory is a theoretical framework. In which, the tiny, point-like particles are replaced by one-dimensional thing known as, strings. Strings theory proposes that a string experiencing a certain mode of vibration corresponds to a particle with definite properties, like charge and mass. A physicist discovered in the 1980s, that string theory had the potential to absorb all four forces of nature, gravity, electromagnetism, strong force and weak force. Also, all kinds of matter in a single quantum mechanical framework proposing that it’s probably the unified field theory which physicists are looking for a long time.

While string theory is still a vibrant area of research of research that is undergoing rapid development, it remains basically a mathematical construct because it still has to make contact with experimental observations. Albert Einstein merged space and time with his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905. He showed that motion through space and time are responsible for the gravity’s force. Einstein further merged space, time and gravitation in 1915 with General Theory of Relativity and proved that warps and curves in space and time are responsible for the gravity’s force. These are monumental achievements. But Albert Einstein’s ambition was even grander unification.

His vision was one powerful framework that would explain all the forces of nature including space and time, which Einstein referred to as a unified theory. In the last three decades of his life, Einstein incessantly chased his vision. And some rumors say that he succeeded. Closer examination dashes hope like this, always. Almost all the contemporaries of Einstein considered the research for a unified to be hopeless if not misguided in the guest.

From the 1920s onwards, the primary concern of theoretical physicists was quantum mechanics; the emerging framework for explaining the subatomic and atomic processes. At sales this, particles have such small masses that gravity is essentially irrelevant in their interactions. That’s why for many years quantum mechanical calculations mostly ignored general relativistic effects. But in 1960, everyone was forced on a different force, known as the strong force, a force binding the protons and neutrons together inside atomic nuclei.

A theoretical physicist, Gabriele Veneziano contributed a key breakthrough in 1968 while working at the CERN (European organization for nuclear research) with his achievement that a formula which almost 200 years old, known as the Euler beta function was capable to explain much of the data on the strong force than being gathered at diverse particle accelerators’ across the world. Some years later, three physicists materially amplified the insights of Veneziano proving that the mathematics underlying the proposal of Veneziano describes the minuscule filaments of energy’s irrational motion which mirrors tiny strands of string.

Which caused the name string theory. Harshly, it is the theory suggesting the strong force am anted strings binding particle together tied with the endpoints of strings. String theory was an instinctively attractive proposal but in the mid-1970s, strong forces more clear measurements had diverged from its predictions led many types of research in a conclusion that string theory isn’t related to the physical universe, no matter how neat the mathematical theory is.

However, some physicists continued to chase string theory; John Schwartz of the California Institute of technology. John Schwartz of Ecole Normale Supérieure and Tamiaki Yoneya of Hokkaido University come to an absolute conclusion, which is one of the supposedly failed predictions of string theory, a specific massless particle’s existences that no experiment that studies the strong force had faced was the proof of the very unification anticipated by Einstein. Though no one hasn’t successfully unified the quantum mechanics and general relativity, initial work says that a union likes this would require exactly the massless particle predicted by string theory.

Some physicists claim that having the massless particles build into string theory’s fundamental structure has united the laws of the large (General Relativity) and the laws of the tiny (quantum mechanism). The physicists also insisted that string theory required reinterpretation as a critical step toward the unified theory an of Albert Einstein than just being a description of strong force, But the announcement was universally ignored. String theory had already failed in its first incarnation as the strong force description and many thought it would now succeed as the solution to an even more difficult conundrum.

This view was bolstered by the suffering of string theory from the theoretical problems of its own. Some of its equations proved the sings of being consistent. On the other hand, the theory’s mathematical demanded that the universe has not just three spatial dimensions but six others, which is a total of nine spatial dimensions. These obstacles were the only reason a great number of physicists dropped out the string theory.

But Bill Schwarz and Michael Green from Queen Mary College London were two die-hard string theory lovers achieving a major breakthrough in 1984, proving that the string theory’s equations were consistent after all. This result had spread across the physics community and a grand number of researchers had dropped what they were working on and started to focus on the string theory. And in a few months, the unified framework of string theory took to space, little like the different irrational patterns of a violin string playing different musical notes. The different vibrations of the small strands in the string theory were thought to produce different particles of nature.

According to the theory, the strings are so tiny that they appear as points, as physicist thought particles but actually they have length. This is about 10-33cm. the charge and mass of particles are determined b how the string vibrates. For instance, string theory postulates that an electron is a string experiencing one certain vibrational pattern, and a quark is thought as a string experiencing a different vibrational pattern. Crucially among the vibrational pattern, physicists argued, would also be the particles found by experiment to communicate the forces of nature. This how string theory was suggested as they pursue the unification of all forces and all matter. But what about the extra six dimensions proposed by the string theory?

According to a suggestion of Theodor Kaluza and Oskar Klein, dimensions come in two definite vibrations. The fundamental idea of this theory was to suggest one extra compactified spatial dimension and introduce the pure gravity in 5-dimensional space-time. Like the uncurled length of a long pipe, the dimension can be big enough to see with the naked eye. But like the girth of the tube, the dimension can be hard to find because of being smaller. It will become much more evident if we imagine that the circular cross section of the pipe has only one dimension, the length of the pipe.

Comparatively, according to the string theory, the common encounter’s three dimensions are large and obvious but the other six dimensions are so squeezed and small that they have so far evaded detection. In between 1984 to 1994, several theoretical physicists attempted to fulfill the promise of string theory by developing this abstract and approximate mathematical framework into a concrete predictive nature’s theory. Theorists have pursued to remove the theory’s indirect implications as the string’s minuscule size has prevented their direct detection, which might be testable.

In this regard, string theory’s extra dimensions have shown a major obstacle. If we imagine these six extra dimensions as tiny and hidden then it’ll be a reason for that apparent absence of them. However, the detailed geometry of them is essential for offering predictions of the theory. The reason is very simple, strings are so much tiny that they would vibrate inside the extra dimensions.

Many studies say that little like the French horn’s shape and size affect the airstream’s vibrational patterns via the instrument would affect on the vibration of strings. And as the vibrations of strings determined quantities like particle charges and masses, predictivity requires a geometric form of extra dimension’s knowledge. But the string theory’s equations allow the extra dimensions to take several geometric forms and making it much complicated to extract definitive testable predictions.

These other problems were crumbling the string theory’s rank again by the mid-1990s. But another discovery reinvigorated the field in 1995. Edward Witten, from the Institute for Advanced Study, proposed a set of techniques refining the woolly equations on which every work in string theory had so far been based. Which also includes the realization that it’s not six but seven extra special dimensions that the theory has.

The more equations become accurate, the more elements began to unveil in string theory besides strings. Which are membranous things of several dimensions, collectively known as branches. At last, the new techniques proved that string theory’s different versions created over the past years were fundamental all the same. Theorists named this formerly clear string theories’ unification, M-theory.

With the meaning of *M *postponed until the theory is fully understood. Now, another much-advanced string theory appeared in 1997, when Juan Maldacena’s discovery at anti-de-sitter/ conformal field theory’s (AdS/CFT) similarity took place. Maldacena discovered that a string theory being operated with a particular environment concerning a space-time anti-de-sitter space was similar to a type of quantum field theory being operated in an environment with one less special dimension.

It is been proved as one of the wisest discoveries in the field of string theory, manifesting a powerful link to the quantum field theory’s much more standard methods allowing string theory’s an extra mathematical formulation in particular environment and inspiring many further technical studies.

In these days, the theory’s several factors are still in its developmental stage. Although the amazing process has been made over the past 50 years, collectively the work is oppressed by its piecemeal development with incremental discoveries having been joined as the jigsaw puzzles pieces. That all the pieces fit coherently is spectacular but the bigger picture they are filling out, the basic principle underlying the theory remaining mysterious. Also, the theory isn’t supported by observation thus it remains a completely theoretical construct.

Supersymmetry is a very important quality of string theory which is a mathematical property requiring all the known particles species to have another particle species as a partner, also we can call it superpartner.

It is needed to explain string theory often bring referred to as superstring theory. But no superpartner particles have been experimentally detected till now. But researchers think that it must be because of their weight, they are probably heavier than their known counterparts and need a machine at least power enough as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to produce them. And though if we find the superpartner particles, it would be still very hard to prove the string theory accurately because more conventional point particle theories have also merged the Supersymmetry into their mathematical structure, successfully.

Nevertheless, supersymmetry’s discovery would prove string theory’s very important element and give circumstantial evidence that this approach to unification is on the right track. Even if these accelerator based tests are indecisive, there is a second way that string theory may one day be tested. Through the effect of it on the earliest and utmost moments of the universe, string theory’s physics may have left vague cosmological signatures.

Such as, in the form of gravitational waves or temperature’s particular pattern variances in the cosmic microwave background radiation; which we may able to observe with precision satellite-borne telescopes and detectors of the next generation. This would be a great conclusion to the quest of Albert Einstein for unification if a theory of the tiny microscopic matter’s component were confirmed through the study of the largest astronomical empire of the mysterious cosmos.